→ Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).
→ In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can cause the nerves themselves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged.
→ Signs and symptoms of MS vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently or at all, while others may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms.


→ The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown. It’s considered an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks its own tissues. In the case of MS, this immune system malfunction destroys myelin (the fatty substance that coats and protects nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord).
→ Myelin can be compared to the insulation coating on electrical wires. When the protective myelin is damaged and nerve fiber is exposed, the messages that travel along that nerve may be slowed or blocked. The nerve may also become damaged itself.
→ It isn’t clear why MS develops in some people and not others. A combination of genetics and environmental factors appears to be responsible.


→ Age. MS can occur at any age, but most commonly affects people between the ages of 15 and 60.
→ Sex. Women are about twice as likely as men are to develop MS.
→ Family history. If one of your parents or siblings has had MS, you are at higher risk of developing the disease.
→ Certain infections. A variety of viruses have been linked to MS, including Epstein-Barr, the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis.
→ Race. White people, particularly those of Northern European descent, are at highest risk of developing MS. People of Asian, African or Native American descent have the lowest risk.
→ Climate. MS is far more common in countries with temperate climates, including Canada, the northern United States, New Zealand, southeastern Australia and Europe.
→ Certain autoimmune diseases. You have a slightly higher risk of developing MS if you have thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes or inflammatory bowel disease.
→ Smoking. Smokers who experience an initial event of symptoms that may signal MS are more likely than nonsmokers to develop a second event that confirms relapsing-remitting MS.


→ Visual changes including double vision or loss of vision
→ Numbness
→ Tingling or weakness (weakness may range from mild to severe)
→ Paralysis
→ Vertigo or dizziness
→ Erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence)
→ Pregnancy problems
→ Incontinence (or conversely, urinary retention)
→ Muscle spasticity
→ Incoordination of muscles
→ Tremor
→ Painful involuntary muscle contractions
→ Slurred speech
→ Fatigue


→ Blood tests, to help rule out other diseases with symptoms similar to MS. Tests to check for specific biomarkers associated with MS are currently under development and may also aid in diagnosing the disease.
→ Lumbar puncture (spinal tap), in which a small sample of fluid is removed from your spinal canal for laboratory analysis. This sample can show abnormalities in antibodies that are associated with MS. Spinal tap can also help rule out infections and other conditions with symptoms similar to MS.
→ MRI, which can reveal areas of MS (lesions) on your brain and spinal cord. You may receive an intravenous injection of a contrast material to highlight lesions that indicate your disease is in an active phase.
→ Evoked potential tests, which record the electrical signals produced by your nervous system in response to stimuli. An evoked potential test may use visual stimuli or electrical stimuli, in which you watch a moving visual pattern, or short electrical impulses are applied to nerves in your legs or arms. Electrodes measure how quickly the information travels down your nerve pathways.


→ IV steroids
→ Interferon injections (Rebif)
→ Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone)
→ Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)
→ Many others, depending on the patient’s symptoms.


→Physical therapists work to help patients regain mobility or strength. They also help patients determine how maintain their strength and mobility after a chronic disease is diagnosed.
→ Physical Therapy (PT) in Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation The physical therapist evaluates and addresses the body’s ability to move and function, with particular emphasis on walking, strength, balance, posture, fatigue, and pain. PT might include stretching, range-of-motion and strengthening exercises, gait training, and training in the use of mobility aids (canes, crutches, scooters and wheelchairs) and other assistive devices. The ultimate goal is to achieve and maintain optimal functioning and prevent unnecessary complications such as de-conditioning, muscle weakness from lack of mobility, and muscle contractures related to spasticity.

→ Pain. Patients with MS often experience pain directly from the disease, secondary to medication or other symptoms, or from something completely separate. PT helps relieve pain through exercise, stretching, massage, ultrasound, postural training, or hydrotherapy.

→ Sensory Deficits. Tapping and verbal cues during exercise and resistance training can help improve proprioception losses. Vision issues, such as blurred or double vision, often occur in patients with MS. PT can offer education on how to be safe at home and offer strategies to improve balance and coordination in dimly lit settings. PT treatment interventions for decreased sensation to light touch include education on awareness, protection, and personal care to desensitized body parts. Pressure-relieving devices are a primary prevention strategy along with proper transfer techniques and daily skin inspections for maintaining skin integrity.

→ Fatigue. One of the most debilitating symptoms of MS is experienced by an overwhelming majority of patients: fatigue. PT strategies to help patients combat feelings of excessive tiredness include aerobic exercise, energy conservation, and activity pacing. Aerobic exercise activities is closely monitored by a PT to ensure a patient does not overheat, but is able to work on increasing their endurance capacity which will help them be more functional throughout the day. PT’s can also teach energy conservation strategies and activity pacing to help someone sustain their daily activities by minimizing fatigue.
→ Spasticity. The physical and functional limitations spasticity leads to include include a variety of impariments which can present as contractures, postural deformities, decubitus ulcers, and more. PT interventions range from cryotherapy and hydrotherapy to therapeutic exercise, stretching, range of motion activities, postural training, and electrical stimulation. A combination of therapeutic interventions is often the route taken.
Balance, Coordination, & Postural Deficits. Ataxia, postural instability, muscle spasms, and generalized muscle weakness all contribute to balance and coordination deficits. PT techniques to address these issues include postural exercise, core strengthening, rhythmic stabilization, static/dynamic balance training, aquatic therapy, proprioceptive loading, and resistance training.

→ Mobility Issues. Weakness, particularly in the lower extremity, balance deficits, fatigue, posture, contractures, sensation deficits, heat intolerance, among other deficits, can impede an individual’s ability to be mobile. In combination of the treatment previously described, PT’s work to help patient’s overcome their mobility limitations through locomotor and functional training. Locomotor training focuses on increasing thigh and hip strength along with posture and balance training through walking activities. Orthotics and assistive devices are added as necessary. Functional training involves bed mobility, transfers, and developing strategies with the patient on how to be able to safely navigate around the home and out in the community.


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